Hinkle Creek

Setting the Landscape Context for Paired Watershed Studies in Western Oregon
Bax, T.V.

Paired watershed studies provide valuable scientific understanding of the effects of disturbance on aquatic resources. Geographic information system (GIS) tools, combined with principal components and cluster analyses, were used to develop a landscape classification of forested headwater basins in order to support these paired watershed studies. Spatial and statistical analyses were applied to landform, geologic texture, forest cover, and climate variables that describe the biophysical and climatic setting of forested headwater catchments (300 – 58,000 km2) in western Oregon. Cluster analysis isolated 5 groups that account for major differences in environmental conditions across the landscape, but have a large ratio of among to within group dissimilarity. The first and second principal component axes correlate most strongly to differences in slope and elevation, and the percent coniferous tree cover and past harvest, respectively.

DISCIPLINE: Disciplinary Results    STUDY: Alsea, Hinkle Creek, Trask    TYPE: Theses    TAGS: Geographic information system (GIS), slope, elevation, Harvest
Relationships Between Stream Discharge and Cutthroat Trout Abundance at Multiple Scales in Managed Headwater Basins of Western Oregon
Owens, H.L.

Relationships between resident cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii) and six hydrologic indices were investigated using correlation analysis in two experimental headwater catchments in the foothills of the Cascade Mountains of western Oregon. This investigation was to determine if characteristics of discharge explained inter-annual variability in trout abundance. Eight years of continuous discharge and annual abundance data collected from two contiguous watersheds from the Hinkle Creek Paired Watershed Study were used for this study. Density-discharge relationships were identified separately in the watershed actively managed for timber harvest and in the control watershed. Correlation was determined at multiple stream segments and at the watershed scale to assess the roles of spatial scale and network location on the detectability of density-discharge relationships. A method for improving the spatial coupling of density and discharge measurements within the stream network was also investigated. No correlations (r ≤ ǀ0.50ǀ) between hydrologic indices and age-1+ trout density in either watershed were found. Two hydrologic indices were related to the density of age-0 trout: maximum annual discharge (r = 0.780) in the control watershed and Q90 summer discharge (r = 0.697) in the treated watershed. The correlation between the density of age-0 trout and each of these two indices were similar across individual stream segments, but variability in the magnitude of the...

DISCIPLINE: Fisheries    STUDY: Hinkle Creek    TYPE: Theses    TAGS: Cutthroat Trout, Variability, trout abundance, Density-discharge relationships
In Lieu of the Paired Catchment Approach: Hydrologic Model Change Detection at the Catchment Scale
Zégre, N., A.E. Skaugset, N.A. Som, J.J. McDonnell, L.M. Ganio

The paired catchment approach has been the predominant method for detecting the effects of disturbance on catchment-scale hydrology. Notwithstanding, the utility of this approach is limited by regression model sample size, variability between paired catchments, type II error, and the inability of locating a long-term suitable control. An increasingly common practice is to use rainfall-runoff models to discern the effect of disturbance on hydrology, but few hydrologic model studies (1) consider problems associated with model identification, (2) use formal statistical methods to evaluate the significance of hydrologic change relative to variations in rainfall and streamflow, and (3) apply change detection models to undisturbed catchments to test the approach. We present an alternative method to the paired catchment approach and improve on stand-alone hydrologic modeling to discern the effects of forest harvesting at the catchment scale. Our method combines rainfall-runoff modeling to account for natural fluctuations in daily streamflow, uncertainty analyses using the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation method to identify and separate hydrologic model uncertainty from unexplained variation, and GLS regression change detection models to provide a formal experimental framework for detecting changes in daily streamflow relative to variations in daily hydrologic and climatic data.

DISCIPLINE: Hydrology & Water Quality    STUDY: Hinkle Creek    TYPE: Journal Articles    TAGS: change detection, hydrologic modeling, forest harvest, time series, uncertainty analysis, land use, Forest Hydrology, Paired Watershed
Factors Influencing Coastal Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii) Seasonal Survival Rates: a Spatially Continuous Approach within Stream Network
Berger, A.M., R.E. Gresswell

Mark–recapture methods were used to examine watershed-scale survival of coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii) from two headwater stream networks. A total of 1725 individuals (‡100 mm, fork length) were individually marked and monitored seasonally over a 3-year period. Differences in survival were compared among spatial (stream segment, subwatershed, and watershed) and temporal (season and year) analytical scales, and the effects of abiotic (discharge, temperature, and cover) and biotic (length, growth, condition, density, movement, and relative fish abundance) factors were evaluated. Seasonal survival was consistently lowest and least variable (years combined) during autumn (16 September – 15 December), and evidence suggested that survival was negatively associated with periods of low stream discharge. In addition, relatively low (–) and high (+) water temperatures, fish length (–), and boulder cover (+) were weakly associated with survival. Seasonal abiotic conditions affected the adult cutthroat trout population in these watersheds, and low-discharge periods (e.g., autumn) were annual survival bottlenecks. Results emphasize the importance of watershed-scale processes to the understanding of population-level survival.

DISCIPLINE: Fisheries    STUDY: Hinkle Creek    TYPE: Journal Articles    TAGS: Mark–recapture, abiotic factors, biotic factors, water temperatures, boulder cover
Passive Integrated Transponder Tag Retention Rates in Headwater Populations of Coastal Cutthroat Trout
Bateman, D.S., R.E. Gresswell, A.M. Berger

Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags have desirable qualities (e.g., unique identification, indefinite tag life, and capacity for remote detection) that make them useful for evaluating survival, growth, and movement of fish, but low tag retention rates can confound data interpretation. Although the effects of PIT tags on short-term growth and survival have been minimal and tag retention rates in laboratory and field studies using only juvenile individuals have been high, tag retention rates for fish at different ontological stages (including reproductively active males and females) remain unknown. We evaluated tag retention rates in wild populations of coastal cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii in three catchments of western Oregon using a double-marking approach (i.e., the adipose fin was removed from all fish that were PIT-tagged). Tags were inserted into the body cavities of fish 100 mm or more in length (fork length; range¼100–250 mm). In the study catchments, this size range includes both juvenile and mature fish. Tag retention rates were approximately 25% lower than those reported by previous studies of juvenile salmonids alone. A number of PIT tags were recovered in redds, indicating that mature individuals eject tags during spawning. Although some coastal cutthroat trout retained PIT tags for up to 4 years, others expelled them repeatedly and were implanted with a minimum of three different PIT tags during the same period.

DISCIPLINE: Fisheries    STUDY: Hinkle Creek    TYPE: Journal Articles    TAGS: Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, retention rates, double-mark, juvenile salmonids
Corrected Prediction Intervals for Change Detection in Paired Watershed Studies
Som, N.A., N.P. Zegre, L.M. Ganio, A.E. Skaugset

Autoregressive process pHydrological data may be temporally autocorrelated requiring autoregressive process parameters to be estimated. Current statistical methods for hydrological change detection in paired watershed studies rely on prediction intervals, but the current form of prediction intervals does not include all appropriate sources of variation. Corrected prediction intervals for the analysis of paired watershed study data that include variation associated with covariance and linear model parameter estimation are presented. We provide an example of their application to data from the Hinkle Creek Paired Watershed Study located in the western Cascade foothills of Southern Oregon, USA. Research implications of using the correct prediction limits and incorporating the estimation uncertainty of aarameters are discussed.

DISCIPLINE: Hydrology & Water Quality    STUDY: Hinkle Creek    TYPE: Journal Articles    TAGS: paired watershed study, generalized least squares, Prasad-Rao mean-squared error estimator, stream discharge, time series
The Effect of Timber Harvest on Summer Low Flows, Hinkle Creek, Oregon
Surfleet, C.G., A.E. Skaugset

Changes to summer low flows from forest harvesting were measured for a gauged fourth-order stream in the Hinkle Creek Paired Watershed Study. At the gauged stream, August streamflow increased an average of 1.9 mm/year (45%) for the three summers following forest harvest of 13% of a 1,084 ha watershed. Following a second harvest of an additional 13% of the watershed the August streamflow increased by 4.5 mm (106%) the first summer and 2.0 mm (47%) the second summer. Master recession curves were fit to the gauged watersheds and the resulting recession coefficients were used to predict low flows from small watersheds nested within the gauged watersheds. The estimated low flows were used to evaluate changes in summer low flows associated with forest harvest for the small watersheds. Using recession curve analysis, the estimated range of the increase for average August streamflow for the four small watersheds in the Hinkle Creek Paired Watershed Study was 1.7 mm to 4.4 mm the first summer following forest harvest. August streamflow in the small watersheds was not distinguishable from preharvest levels within 5 years for all but one watershed, which had the highest proportion of watershed area harvested.

DISCIPLINE: Hydrology & Water Quality    STUDY: Hinkle Creek    TYPE: Journal Articles    TAGS: low flow, recession curve, Forest management, water yield, Forest Hydrology
Sediment Symposium: Quantifying In-Stream Sediment and Biotic Responses Presentation Videos

At the Sediment Symposium, researchers review and summarize our overall understanding of current scientific knowledge of in-stream sediment. The video archive of the presentations is available.

To view the presentations, please visit this website:  http://oregonstate.edu/conferences/event/2013sedimentsummit/videoarchive...

DISCIPLINE: Disciplinary Results    STUDY: Alsea, Hinkle Creek, Trask    TYPE: Presentations    TAGS: Conference, Video, Sediment, Stream, Turbidity, Macroinvertebrate, Amphibian, Road, Fish, Oregon
Short-Term Response of Dicamptodon tenebrosus Larvae to Timber Management in Southwestern Oregon
Leuthold N., M.J. Adams, J.P. Hayes

In the Pacific Northwest, previous studies have found a negative effect of timber management on the abundance of stream amphibians, but results have been variable and region specific. These studies have generally used survey methods that did not account for differences in capture probability and focused on stands that were harvested under older management practices. We examined the influences of contemporary forest practices on larval Dicamptodon tenebrosus as part of the Hinkle Creek paired watershed study. We used a mark–recapture analysis to estimate D. tenebrosus density at 100 1-m sites spread throughout the basin and used extended linear models that accounted for correlation resulting from the repeated surveys at sites across years. Density was associated with substrate, but we found no evidence of an effect of harvest. While holding other factors constant, the model-averaged estimates indicated; 1) each 10% increase in small cobble or larger substrate increased median density of D. tenebrosus 1.05 times, 2) each 100-ha increase in the upstream area drained decreased median density of D. tenebrosus 0.96 times, and 3) increasing the fish density in the 40 m around a site by 0.01 increased median salamander density 1.01 times. Although this study took place in a single basin, it suggests that timber management in similar third-order basins of the southwestern Oregon Cascade foothills is unlikely to have short-term effects of D. tenebrosus larvae. 

DISCIPLINE: Amphibians    STUDY: Hinkle Creek    TYPE: Journal Articles    TAGS: Timber Management, Capture Probability, Harvest, Larva
Transferability of Models to Predict Selection of Cover by Coastal Cutthroat Trout in Small Streams in Western Oregon, USA
Andersen, H.V.

We assessed use and selection of cover by coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkia clarkii) in six headwater streams in three watersheds in western Oregon, USA during the summer low flow period from 1 August and September 30, 2007. We tagged 1037 coastal cutthroat trout (>100 mm) with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags across all streams. Selection of cover was analyzed by comparing characteristics of locations used for concealment by relocated fish relative to characteristics of randomly available habitat that could be used for concealment. We measured habitat characteristics for 190 relocated individual fish using cover and 797 randomly points potentially available as cover. Of the latter points, only 235 of 797 were potential cover, based on characteristics of cover actually used by fish. Coastal cutthroat trout used substrate as cover (78%) more often than all other cover types combined (22%). Availability of different cover types was variable, but overall substrate made up 92% of available cover and the remaining 8% represented all other cover types combined. Habitat characteristics measured for both used and available cover included depth at fish location (cm), surface area of cover (m2), proximity to depth of 20 cm for fish located in < 20 cm in depth, b-axis (mm) for substrate >2 mm, and distance under substrate. Each of these habitat characteristics was different for used and available cover.

DISCIPLINE: Fisheries    STUDY: Alsea, Hinkle Creek, Trask    TYPE: Theses    TAGS: coastal cutthroat trout, cover, substrate, habitat selection, Headwater streams, PIT tags, transferability


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