water temperatures

Factors Influencing Coastal Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii) Seasonal Survival Rates: a Spatially Continuous Approach within Stream Network
Berger, A.M., R.E. Gresswell

Mark–recapture methods were used to examine watershed-scale survival of coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii) from two headwater stream networks. A total of 1725 individuals (‡100 mm, fork length) were individually marked and monitored seasonally over a 3-year period. Differences in survival were compared among spatial (stream segment, subwatershed, and watershed) and temporal (season and year) analytical scales, and the effects of abiotic (discharge, temperature, and cover) and biotic (length, growth, condition, density, movement, and relative fish abundance) factors were evaluated. Seasonal survival was consistently lowest and least variable (years combined) during autumn (16 September – 15 December), and evidence suggested that survival was negatively associated with periods of low stream discharge. In addition, relatively low (–) and high (+) water temperatures, fish length (–), and boulder cover (+) were weakly associated with survival. Seasonal abiotic conditions affected the adult cutthroat trout population in these watersheds, and low-discharge periods (e.g., autumn) were annual survival bottlenecks. Results emphasize the importance of watershed-scale processes to the understanding of population-level survival.

DISCIPLINE: Fisheries    STUDY: Hinkle Creek    TYPE: Journal Articles    TAGS: Mark–recapture, abiotic factors, biotic factors, water temperatures, boulder cover
Three Responses to Small Changes in Stream Temperature by Autumn-Emerging Aquatic Insects
Li, J., S.L. Johnson, J.B. Sobota

In this experimental study, we examined how small increases in summer water temperatures affected aquatic insect growth and autumn emergence. We maintained naturally fluctuating temperatures from 2 nearby streams and a 3rd regime, naturally fluctuating temperatures warmed by 3–5 degrees Celsius, in flow-through troughs from mid-summer until autumn. We added selected abundant Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera species to the 3 treatments in late July and observed emergence until early December. We described the taxon-specific responses of the caddisfly Psychoglypha bella and the mayfly Paraleptophlebia bicornuta, both of which survived well in the troughs (67–86%), and the stonefly Mesocapnia projecta, which we did not collect in mid-summer but had colonized all experimental troughs by October. We observed primarily phenological rather than morphological responses to higher water temperatures. The most synchronous emergence of male and female P. bella and P. bicornuta occurred in the trough with the coolest temperatures. Only P. bella emerged asynchronously from the trough with the warmest temperatures. The decreases in synchrony were largely the result of earlier emergence of males. Paraleptophlebia bicornuta were larger and tended towards asynchrony in the trough with water (and temperatures) from their natal stream. Individuals in the trough with the warmest temperature were smaller than individuals in other troughs, but did not but did not emerge earlier.

DISCIPLINE: Aquatic Invertebrates    STUDY: Trask    TYPE: Journal Articles    TAGS: autumn emergence, aquatic insect growth, asynchronous emergence, water temperatures
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